Exam 2 Biology 303 Fall 2006 Birchard NAME:_____________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) Which of the following is a characteristic of adult echinoderms? A) secondary radial symmetry B) spiral cleavage during early embryonic development C) gastrovascular cavity D) exoskeleton E) a lophophore

2) Their mouth is directed upward in this class of echinoderm. A) class Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars) B) class Asteroidea (sea stars) C) class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) D) class Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars)

 E) class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)

3) The water vascular system of echinoderms A) functions as a circulatory system that distributes nutrients to body cells. B) functions in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange. C) is bilateral in organization, even though the adult animal has radial anatomy. D) moves water through the animal's body during suspension feeding. E) is analogous to the gastrovascular cavity of flatworms

4) Which of these are characteristics of all chordates during at least a portion of their development? A) a dorsal, hollow nerve cord B) pharyngeal clefts C) post-anal tail D) A and B only E) A, B, and C

5) Pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as A) the digestive system's opening. B) suspension-feeding devices. C) components of the jaw. D) gill slits for respiration. E) portions of the inner ear

6) Which extant chordate group is postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance? A) Cephalochordata B) adult Urochordata C) Amphibia D) Reptilia E) Chondrichthyes

7) Which are extinct organisms that may represent a transition between cephalochordates and vertebrates? A) Haikouella and Haikouichthys B) Archaeopteryx C) Acanthostega D) conodonts E) acanthodians

8) Lampreys differ from hagfishes in A) lacking jaws. B) having a cranium. C) having pharyngeal clefts that develop into pharyngeal slits. D) having a notochord throughout life. E) having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage

9) To which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense? A) osteichthyan scales B) reptilian scales C) mammalian scales D) bird scales E) chondrichthyan teeth

10) Which group's members had (have) both lungs and gills during their adult lives? A) sharks, skates, and rays

B) lungfishes C) cephalochordates D) paramphibians E) ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs

11) Which are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates? A) bony fishes B) avian reptiles

 C) amphibians D) non-avian reptiles E) mammals

12) The swim bladder of bony fishes A) was probably modified from simple lungs of freshwater fishes. B) developed into lungs in saltwater fishes. C) first appeared in sharks. D) provides buoyancy, but at a high energy cost. E) both C and D

13) Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (i.e. most general) to least inclusive (i.e. most specific).

1. lobe-fins 2.amphibians 3.gnathostomes 4.osteichthyans 5. tetrapods

A) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2 B) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1 C) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1 D) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2 E) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2

14) What permits reptiles to thrive in arid environments? A) Their bright coloration reflects the intense UV radiation. B) A large number of prey and a limited number of predators are available in the desert. C) A cartilaginous endoskeleton provides needed flexibility for locomotion on sand. D) Their scales contain the protein keratin, which helps prevent dehydration. E) They have an acute sense of sight, especially in bright sunlight

15) Which of these is not considered an amniote? A) amphibians B) non-avian reptiles C) avian reptiles D) egg-laying mammals E) placental mammals

16) Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs? A) lizards B) crocodiles C) snakes D) birds E) mammals

17) Structures that are made of keratin include which of the following? A) avian feathers B) reptilian scales

C) mammalian hair D) A and C only E) A, B, and C

18) Whose DNA would have had the most sequence homologies with amphibians? A) Dinosaurs. B) Birds.

 C) Pterosaurs. D)Mammals. E. Stem reptiles.

19) Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough? It A) has a shell that increases gas exchange. B) allows incubation of eggs in a terrestrial environment. C) prolongs embryonic development. D) provides insulation to conserve heat. E) permits internal fertilization to be replaced by external fertilization

20) Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had A) a long tail containing vertebrae. B) feathers. C) teeth. D) both A and B. E) A, B, and C.

21) During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?

1.amniotic egg 2.paired fins 3.jaws 4. swim bladder 5.four-chambered heart

A) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5 B) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5 C) 3, 2, 1, 4, 5 D) 2, 1, 4, 3, 5 E) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5

22) Which of the following bone(s) moved from the jaw joint into the middle ear in the evolution of mammals?

A) Quadrate. B) Squamosal C) Articular D) Quadrate and Squamosal E) Articular and Quadrate.

23) Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal? A) Look for the presence of milk-producing glands. B) Look for the mammalian characteristics of a four-chambered heart and a diaphragm. C) Because mammals are eutherians, look for evidence of a placenta. D) Use molecular analysis to look for the protein keratin. E) Examine the teeth.

24) Which of these is not a trend in primate evolution? A) enhanced depth perception B) well-developed claws for clinging to trees C) a shoulder joint adapted to brachiation D) increased brain to body ratio E) a long period of parental care of offspring

25) How are primates different from all other mammals? A) placental embryonic development B) hairy bodies

C) arboreal lifestyles D) ability to produce milk E) opposable thumbs in many species

26) Turtles are most closely related to A) Dinosaurs B) crocodilians C) Lizards and Snakes D) Parareptiles E) We do not know which group the turtles are most closely related to.

27) In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal? A) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and mammals

B) amphibians, mammals, and reptiles C) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and reptiles D) reptiles and mammals

 E) reptiles and amphibians

28) Which of these traits is not directly associated with the adoption of bipedalism? A) shortening of jaw B) shortening of limbs C) straightening and shortening of digits D) loss of ability to oppose big toe E) repositioning of foramen magnum

29) Which of the following are not considered hominoids? A) gibbons B) gorillas C) rhesus monkeys D) orangutans E) chimpanzees

30) With which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree? A) Humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor. B) Humans evolved from New World monkeys. C) Humans have stopped evolving and now represent the pinnacle of evolution. D) Apes evolved from humans. E) Humans and apes are the result of disruptive selection in a species of gorilla.

31) Which one of these chordate groups lacks a post-anal tail and a notochord as adults? A) lancelets B) tunicates

C) amphibians D) mammals E) reptiles

32) ________ are the oldest known primate group. A) Apes B) Prosimians C) Anthropoids D) Hominids E) Monkeys

33) Chondrichthyans can be distinguished from osteichthyans by the A) presence in osteichthyans of a skull.

B) presence in osteichthyans of a lateral line system. C) presence in condrichthyans of unpaired fins. D) absence in chondrichthyans of a swim bladder and lungs. E) absence in chondrichthyans of paired sensory organs

34) Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials A) lack nipples. B) have some embryonic development outside the mother's uterus. C) lay eggs. D) are found in Australia and Africa. E) include only insectivores and herbivores

35) Which clade does not include humans? A) synapsids B) lobe-fins C) diapsids D) craniates E) osteichthyans

36) Studies on DNA indicate which of the following? A) Homo erectus had an Asian origin. B) Homo sapiens originated in Africa. C) Neanderthals are the ancestors of modern humans in Europe. D) Australopiths migrated out of Africa.

 E) North America had the first population of modern humans

37) In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko exposed winter wheat plants to ever-colder temperatures, collected their seeds, and then exposed the seedlings to ever-colder temperatures. He repeated his attempts over the course of decades in an attempt to evolve cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lysenko's attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of A) Cuvier. B) Hutton. C) Lamarck. D) Darwin. E) Plato.

38) Both Darwin's and Lamarck's ideas regarding evolution suggest which of the following? A) All species were fixed at the time of creation. B) Acquired physical characteristics can be inherited. C) The giraffe's long neck is the result of artificial selection. D) The main mechanism of evolution is natural selection. E) The interaction of organisms with their environment is important in the evolutionary process

39) Natural selection is based on all of the following except A) variation exists within populations. B) the fittest individuals tend to leave the most offspring. C) there is differential reproductive success within populations.

D) populations tend to produce more individuals than the environment can support. E) individuals must adapt to their environment.

40) DDT was once considered a "silver bullet" that would permanently eradicate insect pests. Today, instead, DDT is largely useless against many insects. What would need to be true for pest eradication efforts to have been successful in the long run? A) Larger doses of DDT should have been applied. B) All habitats should have received applications of DDT at about the same time. C) The frequency of DDT application should have been higher. D) All individual insects should have possessed genomes that made them susceptible to DDT. E) DDT application should have been continual

41) The theory of evolution is most accurately described as A) an educated guess about how species originate. B)one possible explanation, among several scientific alternatives, about how species have come into existence. C) an opinion that some scientists hold about how living things change over time. D) an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time. E) an idea about how acquired characteristics are passed on to subsequent generations

42) Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based? A) There is heritable variation among individuals. B) Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring. C) There is a struggle for limited resources, and only a fraction of offspring survive. D) Individuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environment generally leave more offspring than those that are less well suited. E) Organisms interact with their environments

43) In science, the term theory generally applies to an idea that A) is a speculation lacking supportive observations or experiments. B) attempts to explain many related phenomena. C) is synonymous with what biologists mean by a hypothesis. D) is considered a law of nature. E) all of the above.

44) The smallest biological unit that can evolve over time is A) a cell. B) an individual organism. C) a population. D) a species. E) an ecosystem

45) Which of the following pairs of structures is least likely to represent homology? A) the wings of a bat and the forelimbs of a human B) the hemoglobin of a baboon and that of a gorilla C) the mitochondria of a plant and those of an animal D) the wings of a bird and those of an insect E) the brain of a cat and that of a dog

Describe the following statements as either True (A) or False (B)

46) The scales of fish and reptiles are homologous

47) Excepting Archosaurs, reptiles have three chambered hearts

48) The rectal gland is an extra renal organ

49) Endothermy evolved twice in the vertebrates

50) neural crest cells are a character of the earliest chordates

51) Echinoderms are protostomes

52) homocercal tails are found in ray finned fishes

53) Amphibians and reptiles are diapsids

100) Mark the answer to question 100 on your scantron A to have your exam graded correctly